London Arbitration 29/22
Charterparty agreements in contemporary practice invariably deal with risk allocation between parties and to that end incorporate lengthy provisions. However, such provisions might not always secure the outcome one party hopes to achieve as their legal construction are bound to be influenced from legal precedents and/or legal causation still plays a vital role in the outcome as charterers and also owners in the current dispute found out to their detriment. Several legal issues raised in this dispute, but it is worth elaborating 3 of them which might provide guidance to parties in future when it comes to drafting similar clauses in their agreements.
Speed and consumption calculations (performance)
The charterparty in question (which was on amended NYPE 1946 form), inter alia, stipulated:
Speed/consumption based on good weather conditions up to Beaufort Scale 4 and Douglas Sea State 3. No adverse current and no negative influence of swell.
… no hire to be deducted for alleged underperformance claim until it has been agreed by both parties.
In the absence of consistent discrepancy between deck log and weather routing service and in the absence of amicable settlement the matter will be referred to arbitration.
Charterers argued that the vessel did not perform as warranted on four voyages (in breach of cl 29) and they, accordingly, made deductions from hire. These deductions were based on the report prepared by a weather bureau appointed by the charterers. The reports found that the vessel’s performance was short of what was warranted on four voyages and time was lost consequently. The weather expert appointed by the owners doubted the methodology adopted by the charterers’ expert highlighting several technical reasons why the calculations were not accurate.
The tribunal agreed in general with the evidence provided by the owners’ weather expert especially stressing that:
- The charterers’ expert seems to include in calculations performance assessment during periods of adverse currents or when there was a negative influence of swell in contradiction with good weather indices of cl. 29;
- The vessel’s log was a more reliable indicator of currents than AIS positioning alone in moderate weather conditions:
- Satellite telemetry records did not provide sufficient accurate data regarding localised wind and sea state so as to automatically cast immediate doubt on ship’s observations.
From a legal pointy of view, the tribunal’s decision makes the point again that in instances where the relevant performance provision is silent on the beneficial currents, the owners are entitled to any benefit gained as a result of such currents (a point also made in The Divinegate  EWHC 2095 (Comm)). More significantly, the tribunal’s decision demonstrates that in determining the performance of the chartered vessel, the data in the logbook will not automatically taken into account but equally calculations from weather experts would only be preferred if they are scientifically sound to doubt the accuracy of logbook data.
Clause 82 of the charterparty provided that the charterers are responsible for the cost of hull and/or propeller cleaning if such cleaning is required following the vessel remaining idle at any safe anchorage for a total of 20 consecutive days.
The vessel stayed at Bin Qasim for 22 days and the owners sought to recover the cost of cleaning at the next drydock. The owners also attempted to claim the cost of cleaning hard barnacle roots became embedded in the vessel’s hull discovered just before re-delivery after a report from an underwater operation carried out in Taiwan.
The tribunal found that the hull and propeller fouling was the result of the vessel’s call at Bin Qasim and the charterers were in breach of cl 82 for failing to arrange an underwater inspection and carrying out the necessary cleaning required. However, it was held that the claim for future freshwater washing and sandblasting was not covered by cl 82 as it was unlikely that hard barnacle roots became embedded in the vessel’s hull during the time spent at Bin Qasim. This highlights the need to demonstrate the existence of a causal link between the alleged loss and breach.
Damage to hull
The owners claimed that one of the holds was damaged during loading and discharging operations. The claim was backed by a post-discharge survey and the master’s reports and indemnity for this damage was sought from the charterer under clause 8 of the charterparty which obliged the charterer to undertake all cargo operations and indemnify the owners for the consequences of the charterers’ employment orders.
The tribunal found that it was very likely that the damage was caused during cargo operations but the owners failed in their claim for indemnity as they submitted no invoice following the drydocking giving the tribunal the impression that repairs were either not carried out or had been incorporated with other repairs. Put differently, the owners’ claim was not successful as they failed to prove loss. This is a timely reminder to owners that such indemnity claims need to be documented for recovery.